Server Administration & Cloud Management

Learn Operational Procedures.

Formats for Standard Operating Procedures

When writing standard operating procedures, managers can choose a number of different ways to organize and format them. Your goal is to create a document that is easy for the reader to understand and helpful for the work at hand.

Two factors determine what type of SOP to use (Figure 3). First, how many decisions will the user need to make during the procedure? Second, how many steps and substeps are in the procedure? Routine procedures that are short and require few decisions can be written using thesimple steps format. Long procedures consisting of more than ten steps, with few decisions, should be written in hierarchical steps format or in a graphic format. Procedures that require many decisions should be written in the form of a flowchart.

Figure 3. Standard Operating Procedure Format Choices and Criteria.
Many Decisions? More than 10 steps? Best SOP format
No No Simple Steps
No Yes Hierarchical or Graphic
Yes No Flowchart
Yes Yes Flowchart

Simple Steps

Generally, a milking procedure is very repetitive and requires few decisions. In this case, a simple set of steps like those in Figure 2 is sufficient. The SOP in Figure 2 does not contain much detail. A thorough training program would be necessary to make sure that new milkers understand how to perform each step in the procedure. Unfortunately, this low level of detail still leaves a lot of room for milkers to interpret the procedure. This SOP could work in a situation where only a few people milk.

Hierarchical Steps

A dairy striving for very consistent work should use a more detailed and precise format for most SOPs. The hierarchical steps format (see Figure 4) allows the use of easy-to-read steps for experienced users while including more detailed substeps as well. Experienced users may only refer to the substeps when they need to, while beginners will use the detailed substeps to help them learn the procedure.

Figure 4. Sample “Hierarchical Steps” Operating Procedure Format.

Clarity Farms Parlor SOP #1, Basic Milking Procedure
Effective Date: Feb. 1, 2000
Developed by Parlor Staff

  1. Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder.
    1. Use your gloved hand to remove dry dirt and bedding.
    2. Use a clean paper towel to dry the teats and udder if they are wet.
  2. Predip all four teats with the green dip cup.
    1. Squeeze dip up from bottom reservoir so that teat chamber is ¾ full.
  3. Strip two squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk.
    1. Squirt milk onto black surface of strip cup.
    2. Abnormal milk may appear watery, bloody, or have clots or flakes.
    3. If any abnormal milk is found, refer to Parlor SOP #2, “Dealing With Cows Showing Abnormal Milk.”
  4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side.
  5. Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel.
    1. Completely clean teats from base of udder to end of teat.
    2. Pay special attention to the tip of the teat where the opening is located.
    3. Use more than one towel if necessary.
  6. Attach unit to first cow and adjust.
    1. Press green button on control panel to activate milking unit.
    2. Attach teat cups while allowing as little air as possible to escape.
    3. Adjust automatic take-off arm and hoses so milking unit hangs level from front to back.
  7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with the second and third cows in the side.
  8. Begin at step 1 with the fourth cow on the side and repeat procedure with each group of three cows until all 12 units are attached.
  9. When all units have detached, postdip all cows with the blue dip cup and release.
    1. Squeeze dip up from bottom reservoir so that teat chamber is ¾ full.


a) This course is specially designed to provide technical knowledge and skills to cope with the requirement of System Administration and/or Server Administration occupations of the IT sector. The course will be implemented to ensure at least 67% of total contact hours on practical/hands on skills training or practice and 33% trade/occupations related theory including OHS and soft modules;

b) The course is designed to enable trainees to acquire a range of technical and vocational, practical, personal and organizational skills valued and utilized both within and beyond the workplace;

c) The course is designed to meet the required competencies of the occupations needed in the IT labor market in and outside the country;

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  • Operating System

  • Security Fundamentals

    • Learn about Security fundamentals
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    • Learn Security Protection Fundamentals
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  • Data Communications and Networking

    • Defining Network Infrastructures and Network Security
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    • Defining Networks with the OSI Model.
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    • TCP/IP.
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    • Understanding Internet Protocol.
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    • Working with Networking Services.
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  • Windows Server 2012

    • Deploying and Managing Windows Server 2012
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    • Introduction to Windows Server 2012
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    • Introduction to Active Directory Domain Services.
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    • Active Directory Users & Groups
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    • Implementing DHCP.
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    • Popular Windows Network Services and Applications.
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  • Linux Administering

    • Familiarizing Yourself with Linux.
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    • Installing Linux
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    • Introduction to Linux
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    • Managing Files in Linux.
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  • Cloud Management

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